Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.[1] Biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life.

A sub-discipline of both biology and chemistry, biochemistry can be divided in three fields; molecular geneticsprotein science and metabolism. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has through these three disciplines become successful at explaining living processes. Almost all areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and expanded upon by biochemical methodology and research.[2] Biochemistry focuses on understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells,[3] which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of tissuesorgans, and organism structure and function.[4]

Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena.[5]

Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteinsnucleic acidscarbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.[6] The chemistry of the cell also depends on the reactions of smaller molecules and ions. These can be inorganic, for example water and metal ions, or organic, for example the amino acids, which are used to synthesize proteins.[7] The mechanisms by which cells harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism. The findings of biochemistry are applied primarily in medicinenutrition, and agriculture. In medicine, biochemists investigate the causes and cures of diseases.[8] In nutrition, they study how to maintain health wellness and study the effects of nutritional deficiencies.[9] In agriculture, biochemists investigate soil and fertilizers, and try to discover ways to improve crop cultivation, crop storage and pest control.

Biochemistry Specialties and Research areas

  1. Carbohydrate Biochemistry
  2. Lipid Biochemistry
  3. Protein Biochemistry
  4. Clinical Biochemistry/Chemical pathology/ Clinical Chemistry
  5. Nutritional Biochemistry and Vitaminology
  6. Environmental Biochemistry
  7. Toxicology and Therapeutic drug monitoring
  8. Immunochemistry
  9. Immunology
  10. Microbial Biochemistry
  11. Xenobiotics and Membrane Biochemistry

Leave a Comment